This agave is highly variable in form, but in general the rosettes are small and compact, growing to 0.5m, composed of short, rigid, thick leaves that are green with a pattern of distinctive white markings. The markings are generally along leaf keels or margins, giving a sort of polyhedral appearance. Marginal teeth are usually lacking, while the terminus of the leaf may include 1 to 3 spines, each 1.5–3 cm in length. Cream coloured flowers are borne in erect racemes up to 4m in length.
A. victoriae-reginae is found the Chihuahuan Desert in the Mexican States of Coahuila, Durango and Nuevo León, with about a half-dozen subspecies named. The situation is complicated by hybrids with a number of other agave species.